SPEECH-LANGUAGE MILESTONES

All information listed here and the age milestones listed below are from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.

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Your child starts communicating with you long before he says his first word. Learn more about what your child should do in his first 5 years and how you can help.

Speech, language, or hearing problems can lead to trouble making friends and doing well in school. Give your child success—get help early.

Find your child’s age below and learn about their speech, language, and hearing development.

BIRTH TO ONE YEAR

Children develop at their own rate. Your child might not have all skills until the end of the age range.

What should my child be able to do?

Hearing and Understanding Talking

Birth–3 Months

  • Startles at loud sounds.
  • Quiets or smiles when you talk.
  • Seems to recognize your voice. Quiets if crying.

Birth–3 Months

  • Makes cooing sounds.
  • Cries change for different needs.
  • Smiles at people.

4–6 Months

  • Moves her eyes in the direction of sounds.
  • Responds to changes in your tone of voice.
  • Notices toys that make sounds.
  • Pays attention to music.

4–6 Months

  • Coos and babbles when playing alone or with you.
  • Makes speech-like babbling sounds, like pa, ba, and mi.
  • Giggles and laughs.
  • Makes sounds when happy or upset.

7 Months–1 Year

  • Turns and looks in the direction of sounds.
  • Looks when you point.
  • Turns when you call her name.
  • Understands words for common items and people—words like cup, truck, juice, and daddy.
  • Starts to respond to simple words and phrases, like “No,” “Come here,” and “Want more?”
  • Plays games with you, like peek-a-boo and pat-a-cake.
  • Listens to songs and stories for a short time.

7 Months–1 Year

  • Babbles long strings of sounds, like mimi upup babababa.
  • Uses sounds and gestures to get and keep attention.
  • Points to objects and shows them to others.
  • Uses gestures like waving bye, reaching for “up,” and shaking his head no.
  • Imitates different speech sounds.
  • Says 1 or 2 words, like hi, dog, dada, mama, or uh-oh. This will happen around his first birthday, but sounds may not be clear.

What can I do to help?

  • Check if your child can hear. See if she turns to noises or looks at you when you talk. Pay attention to ear problems and infections, and see your doctor.
  • Respond to your child. Look at him when he makes noises. Talk to him. Imitate the sounds he makes.
  • Laugh when she does. Imitate the faces she makes.
  • Teach your baby to imitate actions, like peek-a-boo, clapping, blowing kisses, and waving bye-bye. This teaches him how to take turns. We take turns when we talk.
  • Talk about what you do during the day. Say things like “Mommy is washing your hair”; “You are eating peas”; and “Oh, these peas are good!”
  • Talk about where you go, what you do there, and who and what you see. Say things like, “We are going to Grandma’s house. Grandma has a dog. You can pet the dog.”
  • Teach animal sounds, like “A cow says ‘moo.’”
  • Read to your child every day.
  • Talk to your child in the language you are most comfortable using.
ONE TO TWO YEARS

Children develop at their own rate. Your child might not have all skills until the end of the age range.

What should my child be able to do?

Hearing and Understanding Talking
  • Points to a few body parts when you ask.
  • Follows 1-part directions, like “Roll the ball” or “Kiss the baby.”
  • Responds to simple questions, like “Who’s that?” or “Where’s your shoe?”
  • Listens to simple stories, songs, and rhymes.
  • Points to pictures in a book when you name them.
  • Uses a lot of new words.
  • Uses p, b, m, h, and w in words.
  • Starts to name pictures in books.
  • Asks questions, like “What’s that?”, “Who’s that?”, and “Where’s kitty?” 
  • Puts 2 words together, like “more apple,” “no bed,” and “mommy book.”

What can I do to help?

  • Talk to your child as you do things and go places. For example, when taking a walk, point to and name what you see. Say things like, “I see a dog. The dog says ‘woof.’ This is a big dog. This dog is brown.”
  • Use short words and sentences that your child can imitate. Use correct grammar.
  • Talk about sounds around your house. Listen to the clock tick, and say “t-t-t.” Make car or plane sounds, like “v-v-v-v.”
  • Play with sounds at bath time. You are eye-level with your child. Blow bubbles, and make the sound “b-b-b-b.” Pop bubbles, and make a “p-p-p-p” sound. Engines on toys can make the “rrr-rrr-rrr” sound.
  • Add to words your child says. For example, if she says “car,” you can say, “You’re right! That is a big red car.”
  • Read to your child every day. Try to find books with large pictures and a few words on each page. Talk about the pictures on each page.
  • Have your child point to pictures that you name.
  • Ask your child to name pictures. He may not answer at first. Just name the pictures for him. One day, he will surprise you by telling you the name.
  • Talk to your child in the language you are most comfortable using.
TWO TO THREE YEARS

Children develop at their own rate. Your child might not have all skills until the end of the age range.

What should my child be able to do?

Hearing and Understanding Talking

 

  • Understands opposites, like go–stop, big–little, and up–down.
  • Follows 2-part directions, like “Get the spoon and put it on the table.”
  • Understands new words quickly.

 

  • Has a word for almost everything.
  • Talks about things that are not in the room.
  • Uses k, g, f, t, d, and n in words.
  • Uses words like in, on, and under.
  • Uses two- or three- words to talk about and ask for things.
  • People who know your child can understand him.
  • Asks “Why?”
  • Puts 3 words together to talk about things. May repeat some words and sounds.

What can I do to help?

  • Use short words and sentences. Speak clearly.
  • Repeat what your child says, and add to it. If she says, “Pretty flower,” you can say, “Yes, that is a pretty flower. The flower is bright red. It smells good too. Do you want to smell the flower?”
  • Let your child know that what he says is important to you. Ask him to repeat things that you do not understand. For example, say, “I know you want a block. Tell me which block you want.”
  • Teach your child new words. Reading is a great way to do this. Read books with short sentences on each page.
  • Talk about colors and shapes.
  • Practice counting. Count toes and fingers. Count steps.
  • Name objects, and talk about the picture on each page of a book. Use words that are similar, like mommy, woman, lady, grown-up, adult. Use new words in sentences to help your child learn the meaning.
  • Put objects into a bucket. Let your child remove them one at a time, and say its name. Repeat what she says, and add to it. Help her group the objects into categories, like clothes, food, animals.
  • Cut out pictures from magazines, and make a scrapbook. Help your child glue the pictures into the scrapbook. Name the pictures, and talk about how you use them.
  • Look at family photos, and name the people. Talk about what they are doing in the picture.
  • Write simple phrases under the pictures. For example, “I can swim,” or “Happy birthday to Daddy.” Your child will start to understand that the letters mean something.
  • Ask your child to make a choice instead of giving a “yes” or “no” answer. For example, rather than asking, “Do you want milk?” ask, “Would you like milk or water?” Be sure to wait for the answer, and praise him for answering. You can say, “Thank you for telling mommy what you want. Mommy will get you a glass of milk.”
  • Sing songs, play finger games, and tell nursery rhymes. These songs and games teach your child about the rhythm and sounds of language.
  • Talk to your child in the language you are most comfortable using.
THREE TO FOUR YEARS

Children develop at their own rate. Your child might not have all skills until the end of the age range.

What should my child be able to do?

Hearing and Understanding Talking

 

    • Responds when you call from another room.
    • Understands words for some colors, like red, blue, and green.
    • Understands words for some shapes, like circle and square.
    • Understands words for family, like brother, grandmother, and aunt.

 

  • Answers simple who, what, and where questions.
  • Says rhyming words, like hatcat.
  • Uses pronouns, like I, you, me, we, and they.
  • Uses some plural words, like toys, birds, and buses.
  • Most people understand what your child says.
  • Asks when and how questions.
  • Puts 4 words together. May make some mistakes, like “I goed to school.”
  • Talks about what happened during the day. Uses about 4 sentences at a time.

What can I do to help?

  • Cut out pictures from old magazines. Make silly pictures by gluing parts of different pictures together. For example, cut out a dog and a car. Glue the dog into the car as the driver. Help your child explain what is silly about the picture.
  • Sort pictures and objects into categories, like food, animals, or shapes. Ask your child to find the picture or object that does not belong. For example, a baby does not belong with the animals.
  • Read, sing, and talk about what you do and where you go. Use rhyming words. This will help your child learn new words and sentences.
  • Read books with a simple story. Talk about the story with your child. Help her retell the story, or act it out with props and dress-up clothes. Tell her your favorite part of the story. Ask for her favorite part.
  • Look at family pictures. Have your child tell a story about the picture.
  • Help your child understand by asking him questions. Have him try to fool you with his own questions. Make this a game by pretending that some of his questions fool you.
  • Act out daily activities, like cooking food or going to the doctor. Use dress-up and role-playing to help your child understand how others talk and act. This will help your child learn social skills and how to tell stories.
  • Talk to your child in the language you are most comfortable using.
FOUR TO FIVE YEARS

Children develop at their own rate. Your child might not have all skills until the end of the age range.

What should my child be able to do?

Hearing and Understanding Talking

 

  • Understands words for order, like first, next, and last.
  • Understands words for time, like yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
  • Follows longer directions, like “Put your pajamas on, brush your teeth, and then pick out a book.”
  • Follows classroom directions, like “Draw a circle on your paper around something you eat.”
  • Hears and understands most of what she hears at home and in school.

 

  • Says all speech sounds in words. May make mistakes on sounds that are harder to say, like l, s, r, v, z, ch, sh, and th.
  • Responds to “What did you say?”
  • Talks without repeating sounds or words most of the time.
  • Names letters and numbers.
  • Uses sentences that have more than 1 action word, like jump, play, and get. May make some mistakes, like “Zach gots 2 video games, but I got one.”
  • Tells a short story.
  • Keeps a conversation going.
  • Talks in different ways, depending on the listener and place. Your child may use short sentences with younger children. He may talk louder outside than inside.

What can I do to help?

  • Talk about where things are in space, using words like first and last or right and left. Talk about opposites, like up and down or big and little.
  • Give your child clues, and have him guess the object.
  • Talk about categories, like fruits, furniture, and shapes. Sort items into categories. Have your child tell you which item does not belong. Talk about why it doesn’t belong.
  • Let your child tell you how to do something.
  • Pay attention when your child speaks. Respond, praise, and encourage him when he talks. Get his attention before you speak. Pause after speaking, and let him respond to what you said.
  • Keep teaching your child new words. Define words, and help your child understand them. For example, say, “This vehicle is on the highway. It is a car. A bus is another kind of vehicle. So are a train and an airplane.”
  • Teach your child to ask for help when she does not understand what a word means.
  • Point out objects that are the same or different. Talk about what makes them the same or different. Maybe they are the same color. Maybe they are both animals. Maybe one is big and one is little.
  • Act out stories. Play house, doctor, and store using dolls, figures, and dress-up clothes. Have the dolls talk to each other.
  • Read stories that are easy to follow. Help your child guess what will happen next in the story. Act out the stories, or put on puppet shows. Have your child draw a picture of a scene from the story. You can do the same thing with videos and TV shows. Ask who, what, when, where, or why questions about the story.
  • Play game like “I Spy.” Describe something you see, like, “I spy something round on the wall that you use to tell the time.” Let your child guess what it is. Let your child describe something he sees. This helps him learn to listen and to use words to talk about what he sees.
  • Give your child 2-step directions, like “Get your coat from the closet and put it on.” Let your child tell you how to do something. Draw a picture that he describes. Write down your child’s story as she tells it. Your child will learn the power of storytelling and writing.
  • Play board games with your child. This will help him learn to follow rules and talk about the game.
  • Have your child help you plan daily activities. For example, have her make a shopping list for the grocery store. Or, let her help you plan her birthday party. Ask her opinion, and let her make choices.
  • Talk to your child in the language you are most comfortable using.
DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES

The links provided below are from the American Occupational Therapy Association.

American Occupational Therapy Association | Choosing Wisely

Click here to know more about occupational therapist’s role with children and youth. 

Click here to learn more about occupational therapy for children and youth.

The links provided below are from APTA Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy

APPT

Click here for the APTA Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy’s Fact Sheets and Resources.

Find your child’s age below and learn about their development, or “milestones”.  The milestones provided below were organized from our own staff.

BIRTH TO TWO MONTHS

Social/Emotional

o Begins to smile at people, begins to recognize primary caregiver

o Regulation of sleep-wake cycle; regulation of feeding and elimination

o Relies heavily on caregivers for emotional and soothing support

Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

o Pays attention to faces

o Begins to follow things with eyes

o Begins to fuss if activity doesn’t change

Motor Skills

o Movements are initially random and uncontrolled but begin to become smoother

o Able to hold an item when it is placed in the palm of his/her hand due to palmar reflex

o Lifts head to turn from side to side and can lift head against gravity

o Able to turn head to both sides

Sensory

o Can briefly calm themselves by placing hand in mouth or by sucking on hands

o Prefers objects with bright, contrasting colors

o Looks at people and objects within 12 inches

o Explores the environment freely by looking, tasting, smelling, feeling and hearing

    2 -4 MONTHS

    Social/Emotional

    o Spontaneously smiles at people, good eye contact is established

    o Begins to distinguish primary caregiver from others

    o Begins to like simple games and/or activities like “peek-a-boo”

    o Begins to put items in their mouths

    o Playful back and forth interactions occur with familiar people

    Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

    o Memory begins to develop

    o Responds to affection

    o Watches faces closely

    o Lets you know if they are happy or sad

    Motor Skills

    o Bring hands to mouth

    o Movements become increasingly smoother

    o Holds head steady when held or seated with support

    o Grasps objects with better control

    o Follows objects by moving head from side to side when placed on belly

    o May accidentally roll from tummy to side

    Sensory

    o Enjoys physical contact

    o Calms with rhythmical movements

    o Falls asleep in over-stimulating environments

      4 - 6 MONTHS

      Social/Emotional

      o Likes to look at self in mirror

      o Likes to play with others

      o May become upset when a toy is taken away

      o Expresses self; cries, laughs, reaches for a familiar adult

      Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

      o Looks around at things nearby

      o Shows curiosity and tries to get things that are out of reach

      o Brings toys to mouth

      o Begins to pass things from one hand to the other

      Motor Skills

      o Rocks back and forth

      o Brings hands to feet

      o Brings feet to mouth

      o Rolls to belly

      o Reaches and grasps at toy

      o Brings hands together in midline

      o Shakes rattle when placed in hand

      o Grasps a small object using his/her palm

      o Begins to follow moving objects using eyes and head

      o Momentarily will lean on hands (prop sitting)

      o May begin sitting independently for brief periods

      o Will stand while being held and bear weight through legs

      Sensory

      o Enjoys physical contact

      o Calms with rhymical movements

      o Falls asleep in overstimulating environments

      6 - 9 MONTHS

      Social/Emotional

      o May be afraid of strangers

      o Has favorite toys

      o Plays with toys more independently

      o Enjoys repeating interesting experiences (banging a drum, pushing a button on toy)

      o Enjoys the freedom that their new movement brings

      Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

      o Object permanence (i.e. able to find a toy hidden under blanket)

      o Able to predict repeated events

      o Simple imitative play with caregiver

      o Understands “no”

      Motor Skills

      o Sits unsupported and reaches for toys

      o Rocks on hands and knees

      o Begins to crawl on hands and knees

      o Pulls to stand using a stable object

      o Bounces when held in a standing position

      o Sits in high chair

      o Stops self from falling by putting arms out to the side or in front

      o Passes toy from one hand to another

      o Reaches with one hand

      o Bats and grasps dangling objects

      o Uses his/her thumb and or thumb and side of index to grasp objects

      o Rakes tiny objects with his/her hand

      o Holds small objects, one in each hand

      Sensory

      o Enjoys playing with food

      o Investigates objects with vision, touch, and taste

      o Shows increased tolerance of various social and environmental situations

        9 - 12 MONTHS

        Social/Emotional

        o Show fear in certain situations

        o Moves around but will look to caregiver for approval of his/her actions.

        o Uses caregiver as a secure base from which to explore (will explore environment, but makes sure that parent is still physically present while doing so.)

        o Performs for social attention

        o Plays “peek a boo” or “patty cake” games

        o Stanger anxiety is typically present

        Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

        o Explores things in different ways, like shaking, banging, throwing

        o Finds hidden things easily

        o Looks at the right picture or thing when it’s named

        o Copies gestures

        o Starts to use things correctly; for example, drinks from a cup, brushes hair

        o Bangs two things together

        o Puts things in a container, takes things out of a container

        o Lets things go without help

        o Pokes with index (pointer) finger

        o Follows simple directions like “pick up the toy”

        o Imitative learning, baby copies caregiver’s actions as a way of learning

        o Begins to learn the idea of turn taking

        o Begins to anticipate familiar events

        Gross Motor Skills

        o Moves from sit to stand

        o Begins to walk with support by holding onto furniture or other objects

        o Stands alone

        o May take a few steps without holding on

        Fine Motor Skills

        o Opens cabinets and drawers

        o Shows others toys

        o Enjoys banging, waving, and throwing toys

        o Takes objects in and out of containers with hands

        o Claps hands when caregiver sings Patti-Cake

        o Picks up small objects with thumb and two fingers

        o Pokes and points at things

        Self-help

        o Likes to feed self

        o Drinks from cup

        o Helps with dressing and undressing

        Sensory

        o Enjoys bath time, splashing, playing in the water

        o Explores food with fingers

        o Eats a variety of textures and foods using his/her fingers

          12 - 15 MONTHS

          Social/Emotional

          o Caregiver must begin establishing limits

          o Baby may hand you a toy to make it work

          o Understands simple cause and relationships (e.g. If I push a button, it makes a sound)

          o Imitates familiar and unfamiliar movements

          o Feelings of excitement involved in self-discovery

          Gross Motor Skills

          o Walks with legs far apart

          o Crawls over obstacles

          o Crawls upstairs and downstairs

          o Stands up from squat without support

          o Walks backwards several steps

          Fine Motor Skills

          o Stacks 2-3 small blocks

          o Helps turn pages in cardboard book

          o Scribbles with crayons or markers

          o Uses one hand to hold object and the other to manipulate it

          Self-help

          o Brings spoon to mouth

          o Holds cup handles, may spill

          o Removes socks, hat

          o May refuse foods

          Sensory

          o Enjoys messy activities (e.g. painting, waterplay)

          o Very active in exploring environment

          o Sleeps 10-12 hours per night

            15 - 18 MONTHS

            Social/Emotional

            o Points to others to show something interesting

            o Likes to hand things to others in play

            o May have temper tantrums

            o Finds comfort in familiar objects (blanket, stuffed animal)

            o Able to give kisses

            o Symbolic play; may pretend an object is something else (ex. banana=phone, block is an airplane)

            Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

            o Knows what ordinary things are for; for example, telephone, brush, spoon

            o Points to get the attention of others

            o Shows interest in a doll or stuffed animal by pretending to feed

            o Points to one body part

            o Scribbles

            o Can follow 1-step verbal commands without any gestures; for example, sits when you say “sit down”

            Gross Motor Skills

            o Walks sideways

            o Walks upstairs with one hand held

            o May begin walking downstairs with support

            o Walks while carrying a large toy

            o Pushes/Pulls large toys across the floor

            o Throws a ball overhand 3 feet

            Fine Motor Skills

            o Points to one body part

            o Scribbles on own

            o Turns multiple pages in a book

            o Begins to use more objects conventionally (ex. may put comb in hair)

            o Attempts to put pieces in very simple puzzles

            Self-help

            o Can help undress his/herself

            o Brings spoon to mouth

            o Holds cup with handles

            o Removes socks, hat

            o May refuse foods – appetite decreases

            Sensory

            o Enjoys messy activities (e.g. painting, waterplay)

            o Expands exploration of many sensations (i.e. taste, touch, movement, sound, sight, scents)

            o Very active in exploring environment

              18 - 24 MONTHS

              Social/Emotional

              o Gets excited when other children are around

              o Adult must be able to support child in times of high emotions, such as during tantrums in order to teach them to deal with frustration

              o Parallel play

              o Egocentric thinking

              o Beginnings of empathy towards others

              o Is easily frustrated and jealous of attention given to others

              o Engages in social games (playful give and take)

              o Increase in motor and communication skills allows for increased independence and exploration of their environment

              o Expresses self verbally and non-verbally

              o Responds to and initiates interaction with others (hugs, a toy)

              Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

              o Finds things even when hidden under two or three covers

              o Begins to sort shapes and colors

              o Completes sentences and rhymes in familiar books

              o Plays simple make-believe games

              o Builds towers of 4 or more blocks

              o Might use one hand more than the other

              o Follows two-step instructions such as “Pick up your shoes and put them in the closet.”

              o Names items in a picture book such as a cat, bird, or dog

              Gross Motor Skills

              o Walks downstairs with support

              o Walks upstairs without support

              o Begins to run

              o Kicks a ball

              o Jumps down from stair height

              o Climbs onto an adult chair

              o Turns around and sits down

              o Stands on tiptoes

              o Moves forward/backward on a riding toy

              Fine Motor Skills

              o Paints within limits of paper

              o Explores content of cabinets and drawers

              o Turns pages one at a time

              o Imitates vertical lines, horizontal lines and circular scribbles

              o Stacks 3-5 small blocks

              o Starts to use his/her fingers and thumb to grasp crayons

              o Picks up tiny objects using the tips of his/her fingers and thumb to place in a small container

              o Completes simple 4-5-piece puzzles (non-interlocking pieces)

              Self-Help

              o Begins eating with fork

              o Removes shoes (with laces undone)

              o Helps with washing and drying hands

              o Cooperates with dressing

              Sensory

              o Likes rough-and-tumble play

              o Likes messy play (i.e. paint, sand, etc.)

              o Distinguishes between edible and non-edible objects

                2 YEARS

                Social/Emotional

                o Begins to identify self and others in person and in photos

                o Begins to understand social expectations

                o Likes pretend play

                o Will inspire acts of assertiveness and defiance

                o May use physical aggression with peers (pushing, hitting, biting)

                o Presence of “magical thinking” and imaginative play

                o Begins reciprocal play with peers (closer to 3 years)

                Gross Motor Skills

                o Throws a ball 5 feet

                o Walks down stairs without support

                o Runs

                o Jumps

                o Climbs ladders and playground equipment

                o Catches a large ball

                o Jumps backward

                o Experiments with walking on tiptoes

                o Begins to ride a tricycle

                o Hops on 1 foot

                Fine Motor Skills

                o Holds crayon with thumb and fingers

                o Colors within large forms

                o Progresses from random scribbling to somewhat more controlled movements

                o Stacks 6-9 small blocks

                o Can draw a circle

                Seonsory

                o Enjoys water and sand play

                o Calms self with familiar comfort items

                o Enjoys tactile books

                  3 YEARS

                  Social/Emotional

                  o Language is increasingly important in regulation of interactions—able to express wants and needs more

                  o Learns self-control

                  o May become frustrated by changes in routine

                  o Enjoys imaginative and imitative play

                  o May show fear of unfamiliar objects or activities

                  o Has attention span of no more than a few minutes

                  o Increased ability to think symbolically (toy car symbolizes real car)

                  Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

                  o Can work toys with buttons, levers, and moving parts

                  o Plays make-believe with dolls, animals, and people

                  o Does puzzles with 3 or 4 pieces

                  o Understands what “two” means

                  o Copies a circle with pencil or crayon

                  o Turns book pages one at a time

                  o Builds towers of more than 6 blocks

                  o Screws and unscrews jar lids or turns door handle

                  Gross Motor Skills

                  o Runs easily

                  o Pedals a tricycle 10 feet

                  o Climbs up/down stairs without support, placing one foot on each step

                  o Begins to skip

                  o Jumps over obstacles

                  Fine Motor Skills

                  o Uses crayons with somewhat more control

                  o Holds crayon with adult like grasp (tripod) but with whole arm movement

                  o Stacks 9-10 blocks

                  o Colors within lines for large objects

                  o Draws a face

                  o Begins to cut with scissors

                  o Strings small beads

                  Self-help

                  o Dresses self (assistance may be needed for orienting front/back)

                  o Starts to manipulate large buttons

                  o Wipes nose when given tissue

                  o Uses brushing motion with toothbrush

                  o Seats self on toilet and anticipates immediate toilet needs

                  o Puts shoes on (maybe the wrong feet)

                  o Puts socks on (may have heel on top of foot)

                  Sensory

                  o Explores and shows an interest in a variety of playground equipment

                  o Emergence of safety awareness when near others

                    4 YEARS

                    Social/Emotional

                    o Enjoys doing new things and enjoys being silly

                    o Still views things from their own point of view, own opinions, wishes and desires

                    o Cooperative play with others

                    o May experience jealousy and rivalry

                    o Understands world and others

                    o Increased problem solving

                    o Constructs narratives (begins to make up and tell stories)

                    o Enjoys fantasy play

                    o Able to verbalize needs (ex. “I need a hug.”)

                    o Regresses to baby behavior periodically

                    o Is ready for group activities

                    o Continues to test parental limits

                    Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

                    o Names some colors and some numbers

                    o Understands the idea of counting

                    o Starts to understand time

                    o Remembers parts of a story

                    o Understands the idea of “same” and “different”

                    o Plays board or card games

                    o Tells you what he thinks is going to happen next in a book

                    Gross Motor Skills

                    o Able to complete 3-4 full sit-ups

                    o Throws a ball with directional intent

                    o Gallops

                    o Skips 8-10 steps

                    o Can do a somersault

                    Fine Motor Skills

                    o Uses scissors; cuts simple shapes such as a circle and square

                    o Interested in making letters

                    o Makes designs and draws recognizable objects

                    o Copies a cross and square when drawing

                    o Traces a line

                    o Draws a person with 2-4 body parts; may be a stick person

                    o Completes 10 piece puzzles

                    Self-help

                    o Puts on socks correctly

                    o With assistance can dry self after bath

                    o With assistance can brush his/her own hair

                    o Attempts to wipe self after toileting

                    o With supervision, pours drinks, cuts food

                    Sensory

                    o Continues to show an interest in a wide variety of playground equipment

                    o Frequently watches another child try an activity before attempting the activity

                      5 YEARS

                      Social/Emotional

                      o Imagines consequences before acting

                      o Helps with chores

                      o Wants to please friends

                      o Begins to know the difference between right and wrong

                      o Increased self-monitoring abilities

                      o Is aware of gender

                      o Enjoys active semi structures games

                      o Engages in elaborate dramatic play

                      o Proud of accomplishments

                      o Conforms to social norms

                      o Uses words to resolve peer conflicts

                      o Develops a conscious (feels guilt)

                      Cognitive (learning, thinking, and problem solving)

                      o Counts 10 or more things

                      o Can draw a person with at least 6 body parts

                      o Can print some letters or numbers

                      o Copies a triangle and other geometric shapes

                      o Knows about things used every day, like money and food

                      Gross Motor Skills

                      o Swings and climbs

                      o Performs 7-8 push-ups

                      o Performs 6-8 full sit-ups

                      o Kicks ball 12 feet into the air

                      Fine Motor Skills

                      o Colors within the lines

                      o Improves letter formation of name

                      o Folds paper in half

                      o Displays hand dominance (left- or right-hand preference)

                      o Completes interlocking puzzles of up to 20 pieces

                      Self-help

                      o Washes self in bathtub

                      o Brushes/rinses teeth

                      o Engages and zips a jacket

                      o Learns to tie own shoes

                      o Toilets independently

                      o Dresses unsupervised

                        INFANT MASSAGE

                        The information provided below is from World Institute for Nurturing Communication, Infant Massage WINC.

                        What is Infant Massage?

                        Infant massage is a step beyond cuddling and may be a fun way to provide an emotional and physical link between parent and infant. It’s a way to communicate and convey affection and a sense of security. It can provide the infant relief from daily stress or discomfort from constipation, trapped gas or teething. Massaging babies for up to 15 minutes a day can help to increase circulation, promote relaxation, aid the digestive and respiratory systems, and relieve muscle tension. Infant massage is also a wonderful way for fathers, siblings, grandparents and other caregivers to be involved with the new baby in a loving way that they both can enjoy.

                        The practice involves a combination of relaxing strokes, light kneading, and gentle squeezing.  It uses the same strokes that generations of parents all over the world have practiced, yet it becomes a rhythmic dance that is uniquely personal between the parent and baby when experienced at home from day-to-day.
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